Category Archives: Fatality Rate

Case Update: July 7th, 2020; Antibody Dependent Enhancement

Dear Friends,
This is a case update. I’ll also have an important message about antibody dependent enhancement.

Cases continued to rise unchecked in the US, California and San Diego County in the last week, although the long holiday weekend did have impacts on reporting. Some good news is that the number of deaths reported in the US has been slowly declining despite the case increase. Keep in mind however, that deaths will lag behind cases by as much as 2 weeks, so we may yet see an impact from the higher caseload. The number of deaths have been trending flat in California.

Graph is by me, from data collected from Johns Hopkins University COVID site.
Graph is by me, from data collected from Johns Hopkins University COVID site.
Graph is by me, from data collected from Johns Hopkins University COVID site.
Graph is by me, from data collected from Johns Hopkins University COVID site.
Graph is by me, from data collected from San Diego County Public Health. See also regularly updated slides from SD County.
From Rt Live

Rt Live is reporting that all but 8 US states or territories have Rt values above 1.0, meaning that the virus is expanding in those states.

I’m going to bring up an issue that I’ve been avoiding talking about for some time. I’ve been avoiding talking about it because it’s not a certainty, and also because the possibility will be scary for some. The reason I feel compelled to talk about it now is that many are having a hard time understanding why I am still so concerned about the virus when the fatality rate is low and dropping, and folks want to get back to normal life. I’m even hearing about young people having COVID parties in which people gather with a sick individual so they can all get infected and be immune from the virus thereafter.

Before I share this, I’ll also say that the medical community is doing a better job treating patients with COVID, and the disease is becoming more survivable. In addition, we now know a lot about how the virus is spread, and if a person wants to remain uninfected, they can do that, while still getting together with friends and family, and still working and getting on with life. You can be reasonably certain you will not get infected if you do the following:

1) Wear a mask or face covering in public. Avoid places with unmasked people.
2) Keep 6 ft away from others.
3) Avoid indoor gatherings, especially ones in which singing or shouting is likely.
4) Small outdoor gatherings are fine, even without masks, if everyone maintains a distance. Have guests bring their own food.
5) While many restaurants are open for limited indoor seating, I personally am still not comfortable eating indoors at a restaurant. I enjoy eating outdoors at restaurants, however.

Antibody Dependent Enhancement: Several years ago, scientists were developing a vaccine against Dengue Fever, a mosquito borne disease which causes debilitating joint pain in patients. Some time after trial vaccination, several vaccinated patients died suddenly of Dengue Fever. This became the most studied example of Antibody Dependent Enhancement (ADE). Normally, for the annual flu let’s say, a person gets infected by the flu, is sick for a few days, and the immune system develops a response by creating antibodies against that specific strain of the flu. If they are exposed again in a month, nothing will happen. If the patient is exposed to a different strain the following year, they may still get sick, but the antibodies they developed the year before may help them have less severe disease and recover more quickly. Part of the immune response is that some immune cells display antibodies on their surface to capture new invaders.

With Dengue and some other viruses, the first stages are normal. A person gets infected and develops a response. If they get re-infected a month later, nothing happens. But if they get infected with a slightly different strain months or years later, instead of being protected, the virus attaches to antibodies displayed on immune cells and uses the antibodies as a site of entry into the immune system. The immune system is quickly infected, and the patient has a more severe disease with the second infection. Some estimates are that disease may be 3-4 x more severe in these patients.

As it turns out, SARS-1, which arose in 2002, and MERS, which has small outbreaks every year, are both Coronaviruses and both appear to be able to use the ADE pathway. This raises the possibility that SARS-2, the current virus, can also use the ADE pathway. This means that a person infected for a second time with a different strain of SARS-2, or any other Coronavirus for that matter, may be at much higher risk for severe disease.

This is why I’m not in favor of pursuing herd immunity as a pathway out of this crisis, because it will prime people for ADE related problems if a similar strain should strike next year.

This is not a new idea. If you search for “ADE” or “Antibody Dependent Enhancement”, you will see many articles, some peer reviewed from respected journals, on the phenomena. Dr. Fauci has even referenced it using the term “enhancement” when talking about vaccine development.

Why haven’t the government public health departments been more open about this? They tend to make statements only based on what they can be reasonably certain of, which is why they have been so slow to react to many aspects of the current crisis.

Again, it’s not certain that ADE will play a role next year. It’s too early to know. I’m informing you of the possibility so you can make wise decisions for you and your family.

More than ever, don’t fear, but be smart,

A selection of relevant papers:

ADE and it’s potential impact for SARS-2:

ADE in SARS-1:

Overlapping symptoms for SARS, MERS, and SARS-2:

Is COVID-19 receiving ADE from other coronaviruses?

Possible mechanism for ADE:

Summary: What we know so far, June 22, 2020

This long post will be a summary of what we have learned so far about the Coronavirus, and I’ll make some predictions about what to expect next.  Since I’ll be sharing so much information, I won’t give references for everything here. I also have to make the disclaimer that new studies are constantly being done, and some of the below information may need to be revised later. To make my standard disclaimer, I am not an epidemiologist or a physician.  I have a Ph.D. in molecular biology, and my specialty is infectious disease testing. On much of the below, I have an informed but not expert opinion.

Coronaviruses: Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses unrelated to the flu.  What we think of as the common cold, are actually member of several classes of viruses like Adenovirus, RSV viruses, Rhinovirus, and several Coronaviruses.  Many Coronaviruses cause diseases no more virulent than the common cold.  However, just like novel flus can cause extra trouble, so can novel Coronaviruses.  The first SARS virus was much more lethal that the SARS-2 virus, but because SARS had a short incubation period and made almost every infected person sick, it was much easier to contain.  The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus infects a few people every year, and is very lethal, with a fatality rate of 34%, but it also has not made a global impact.  The reason SARS-2 is so dangerous is that it’s VERY infectious (Ro of between 2.5 and 5.7) and has a VERY long incubation time (2-14 days), making it very hard to track.  Plus, it’s at least 2x as deadly at the annual flu.

Name: The official name of the virus is SARS-2-CoV (for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 CoronaVirus).  The official name for the disease it causes is COVID-19 (for COronaVIrus Disease-2019).  You may notice that the term SARS actually sounds a lot like a disease.  You would be right.  So why did they need a different disease name than SARS-2, or SARS-19? I don’t know.

Spread:  Early reports were that SARS-2 mostly spread like a flu, with droplets spreading from coughing or sneezing.  It became apparent later that the virus was also spread through aerosols by laughing, singing, shouting, or even just talking in close proximity for long periods.  As further study was done, it appears that most infected people don’t infect anyone else.  Rather, most infections come from “super-spreader” events, in which a single person infects a large group of people.  This usually happens indoors (at least 19 times more likely) during activities like fitness classes, funerals, concerts, and choir practices.  While outdoor activities aren’t completely immune to these events, they are much more rare.

Viral load upon exposure appears to be an important determinant of how severe a case will be.  Basically, this means that if you’re infected by a “low dose” of virus, your disease is likely to be less severe.  I have several physician friends who have stated that it seems to them that cases in the hospital are less severe than they used to be.  One likely reason for this is that since more people are wearing masks in public than early on, those who are infected are being infected by a lower viral load.

Early studies demonstrated that viable virus can exist on objects for hours or days.  However, it does not appear that a substantial number of people are being infected because they have touched a contaminated object. 

The WHO made a confusing claim recently that asymptomatic people cannot spread the virus.  While this is technically correct, they were not clear that “asymptomatic” is a technical medical term meaning someone who does not have, and will never have, symptoms.  Another group is “pre-symptomatic”.  These are people who currently don’t have symptoms, but will develop symptoms in a few days.  As it turns out, pre-symptomatic people do spread virus, and are likely responsible for up to 80% of new cases. So yes, people without symptoms can and do pass the virus to others.

Risk Factors:  Many believe that only old people are at risk. While it’s true that age is a dominant factor, other risk factors are important, and younger people have also experienced severe symptoms.  Other risk factors include respiratory conditions like asthma or COPD, heart conditions, kidney conditions, liver disease, diabetes, obesity, auto-immune disease, use of NSAID anti-inflammatory medications, being immunocompromised (HIV infected, undergoing cancer treatment, under medication for a transplant), vitamin-D deficiency, type A blood (Type O appears to be protective), inadequate sleep.

Always check with your doctor before changing your medications. I have an auto-immune disease and take daily anti-inflammatories, but my doctor has advised me to continue taking these unless I experience COVID symptoms.

Make sure your doctor is aware if you have any of the above conditions.

Symptoms: Many people who have SARS-2 experience no symptoms, or experience mild flu symptoms.  If you have ANY cold or flu symptoms, contact your doctor and see if you can be tested.  If you live in San Diego County, and your doctor cannot offer you a test, call 2-1-1 to get a free test from SD County Public Health.  If you have additional symptoms like shortness of breath (you just can’t seem to get enough air), loss of smell or taste, nausea or diarrhea, contact your health care provider or an urgent care immediately.

In severe cases, the virus can do wide spread and permanent damage to multiple organ systems.  Early treatment is necessary to prevent the most severe symptoms.

Precautions:  While lockdowns may have been effective in the US during the early stages of the pandemic, especially at a time when masks were hard to come by, recent evidence suggests that lockdowns provide only a moderate benefit over other means of control.  Here’s what appears to be beneficial:

Masks: Masks are not all the same and some are better than others.  Their main benefit is that they stop, reduce, or slow the travel of virus from infected people.  This prevents surrounding people from infection, or lowers the viral load of exposure.  Some, but not all, also prevent the wearer from inhaling airborne virus. N95 style masks without a valve are best if you can obtain one.

Best option: An N95 mask with no valve.

Social Distancing: Aerosolized virus can travel through the air. Staying 6 ft away from others helps prevent infection.


Adequate sleep: Sleep is very important for a wide variety of body functions, including the immune system.  Get 7 – 8 hours of sleep per night.  A 26 minute power nap during the day is also beneficial if needed.

Vitamin D: Several studies have suggested that patients with the most severe cases of COVID also have the lowest levels of Vitamin D.  Because of our often indoor lifestyle, most Americans are Vitamin D deficient to some degree.  The best way of getting some Vitamin D is to make it yourself by going outside in shorts and a T-shirt for 30 minutes a day.  This is because Vitamin D is manufactured in our skin in response to sunlight.  If it’s not practical for you to do this, consider a Vitamin D supplement.  Darker skinned people are more likely to be Vitamin D deficient in the US.

Home isolation: If you have cold or flu symptoms, contact your doctor immediately and see if you can get a test.  Tests are much more available that early in the pandemic, and you should be able to get a test by request.  Also, if at all possible, isolate yourself from the rest of your family until you can be tested as negative.  Many new infections are taking place among family members.

Testing: There are several kinds of tests, and they tell you different things.

PCR: These tests use material collected from the nose and need to go to a specialized laboratory for processing.  They are very sensitive and specific, and indicate whether the patient is currently infected. This is the most common kind of test.

Antibody:  These tests detected antibody from a patient’s blood to see if the patient has been infected for at least a few days.  IgG tests may also tell if a patient was infected weeks or months previous, but are no longer infected.  Some patients do not mount an immune response that will provide long term antibody.

Isothermal amplification:  The Abbott ID Now COVID tests uses this relatively new technology.  These tests are similar to PCR and are both sensitive and very fast. 

If you have cold or flu symptoms, contact your doctor immediately and see if you can get a test.  Testing is much more available than it was early in the pandemic.  San Diego County is encouraging anyone who wants a test to be tested.

Treatments:  Treatment for COVID is complicated and not all patients can be treated in the same way.  Additionally, treatments are evolving rapidly, and your doctor many not treat you in the ways listed below.

Ventilators:  Some doctors now state that ventilators carry risks that may be unacceptable for COVID patients.  Many doctors now favor a nasal cannula, using ventilators only as a last resort if breathing is labored. 

Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin, Zinc: Several doctors from several countries have reported success with this combination.  Studies on the effects of these drugs have as yet still been non-conclusive.  Some positive studies suggest that Zinc is the main virus fighter of the treatment, with Hydroxychloroquine allowing better penetration of Zinc into cells.  Unfortunately, the debate on the efficacy of this regimen has taken on a strongly political tone, which almost always interferes with the scientific process.  Now pundits, as well as scientists, weigh in on this regimen.  I’m still holding a “wait and see” posture with this treatment.

MATH+: This regimen uses Methylprednisolone (an anti-inflammatory), Vitamin C, Thymine, and Heparin, as well as optional other treatments including Vitamin D and Zinc.  Early reports suggest success with this treatment.

Vaccines: Each spring, scientists learn which flu is likely to be prominent by the following Fall.  They make some guesses and create a vaccine for the flu season.  The manufacture process takes a few months. But it’s only this short because they already know how to make a flu vaccine.  Development of a brand new type of vaccine takes between 4 and 30 years!  There are many methods to make a vaccine, and scientists must try many of them before finding one that works.  Then they must try the vaccine on patients and make sure they are relatively safe.  Every vaccine carries some risk of side effects.

Early estimates for a Coronavirus vaccine were around 18 months.  My guess is that this is too optimistic.  Personally, I wouldn’t count on a vaccine for at least a few years.  In addition, some studies have suggested that Coronavirus vaccines in particular may cause side effects that may make vaccine development challenging.  My standard practice for my family is to wait on new drugs for a few years before using them myself. While I pro-vaccine in general, I would personally recommend waiting for a few years before getting a Coronavirus vaccine.

Herd Immunity: Some are promoting herd immunity as a way to move through the crisis faster.  The idea of herd immunity was popularized in pre-pandemic discussions on vaccines, promoting the idea that the more people are vaccinated, the more protection for those who can’t be.  This is a good idea when a vaccine is available, but not when there is no vaccine.  Putting many people in harm’s way to protect fewer others is not wise and is not standard medical practice.

The Future: Of course, it’s impossible to know what will happen next. My initial prediction was that the first wave would be over by July, and at this point, this doesn’t look likely.  New confirmed cases have started to rise or rise faster in the 3 areas I monitor most closely, the US, California, and San Diego County, and cases are rising fast in some countries previously unaffected, especially Brazil, Russia, and India. So I’m starting to think we may not be out of the first wave before the Fall season.

In addition, RNA viruses, such as Coronavirus, can mutate very quickly because the proteins used to copy their genomes are very error prone.  This means that a virus may change to a new form that can re-infect a person who has already had a previous version. Some reports suggest that this may already be happening with SARS-2. Some good news is that on the very long term (years), novel viruses tend to evolve to be less virulent, because it’s not in the “interest” of the virus to make the host very sick. The message is, we may need to adapt to a new reality for the next few months or years.  We can’t really afford to be “locked down” anymore, but mask wearing and elbow bumps may be a part of the landscape for some time.

Don’t fear, but be smart,

Dr. Erickson’s Video and the Fatality Rate

Originally posted on April 25th, 2020 on Facebook

This one is going to be a little mathy. Several people have sent me the video titled “Dr. Erickson COVID-19 Briefing”. I’ve watched the first 12 minutes of the 52 minute video. Dr. Erickson argues that we have a large number of current cases, and that when comparing this number to deaths, he calculates the fatality rate at between 0.03 and 0.07%. This is less than the typical flu. He uses data from his home county of Kern County in California, NYC, the US, Spain, and others. Unfortunately, Dr. Erickson makes a critical error in his calculations.

For the US, he says we have 802,000 confirmed cases (around April 20th) and around 4 million tests. This would give him a positivity rate of 20% for the country. He then calculates that we then have 64 million cases in the country and only 45,000 deaths, giving us a fatality rate of 0.07%

The mistake he makes is that he assumes that tests given represents a random sampling of the population. Anyone who has tried to get a test and failed knows that not everyone who wants a test gets one. And not everyone requests a test either. Dr. Erickson has what’s called a sampling bias. You have to make sure you have a sample that represents the group you want test if you want to say anything about that group. Instead of testing the general population, Dr. Erickson is testing just people who meet the criteria for testing by the CDC or other health care body. This group is far smaller, and far more likely to have the virus than the general population. He over-estimates the number of COVID cases, by maybe 10 fold.

Several studies, some not yet published, have tested random selections of the population using PCR and antibody tests (see references 1, 2, 3, below). In those studies, fatality rates range from 0.12 – 0.7%, 2 – 23x higher than Dr. Erickson’s estimate. Also, the studies by Bendavid and Sood (2, 3) suggested that approx. 4% of the populations of Santa Clara County (San Jose) and Los Angeles were infected in early to mid April. So 96% of the population is still susceptible. At the 0.12 – 0.7 death rate, that’s 6,000 – 37,000 potential deaths for those 2 places alone. Even these studies, with fatality rates far higher than Dr. Erickson’s, have been criticized for an estimate that is too low because of sample bias (4).

We won’t really know how many people have had it until there is wide spread testing. South Korea has done extensive testing, and their fatality rate is 2.24%. This might be in the ballpark of the rate in the US.

So I have to reiterate, SARS-2 is not the average flu. In addition to being up to at least 5x more deadly, it’s also 4x more infectious. The very good news is, our efforts are paying off, and the daily rate of new cases for the US is now just 2.46%, down from a terrifying 46% on March 19th. It’s right for some living in rural areas to wonder if they can begin the process of going back to normal. Some can, but it needs to be done carefully and watchfully, with lots of testing for exposure, not just for symptoms (See my April 9th and April 22nd posts). The entire state of Minnesota plans to do just that. We can watch in real time to see how it goes for them. We don’t want another Albany, Georgia! Urban areas like coastal California and the Acela Corridor will have to wait awhile longer.

Don’t fear, but be smart!

1. Sutton et al., Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery. April 13, 2020. NEJM,
2. Bendavid et al., COVID-19 Antibody Seroprevalence in Santa Clara County, California, April 11, 2020, preprint by medRxiv
3. CBS report on upcoming study
4. Experts demolish studies suggesting COVID-19 is no worse than flu

PS. If you want me to watch something later in Dr. Erickson’s video, please tell me what the time reference is. I really don’t want to watch the whole thing!

What is the Fatality Rate?, Antibody tests, Re-opening

Originally posted on April 22nd, 2020 on Facebook

This is a little longer post, this time with lots of science. I’ll talk about new measures of the fatality rate, some of the new Antibody testing, and also about the new re-opening guidelines. As always, consult with your doctor when making health care decisions!

First, very briefly, I’ll just say that we have seen a big up-tick of cases in the last few days. I’m trying to be optimistic about this and assume for now that this is because of increased testing. The large labs have been purchasing new instruments of different types to broaden their offerings.

There have been a handful of studies trying to discern the number of asymptomatic cases. One recent study in New York tested all pregnant women coming in to deliver. It showed that at least in this sampling, there we about 7x more asymptomatic women testing positive for COVID than symptomatic women (Sutton et al, Universal Screening for SARS-CoV-2 in Women Admitted for Delivery. April 13, 2020. NEJM, If this is roughly correct, then most confirmed cases numbers you see can be multiplied by 8 to get the real number of cases, as least until testing becomes more comprehensive. This also means the real fatality rate may be approximately 0.7%, about 5x higher than the typical flu.

Some have suggested that the fatality rate for COVID is the same as the flu, but this is the low end of new estimates, and for now, my guess is that it is higher. I think 0.7% is a good estimate for now. The rate for the typical flu 0.14%. Keep in mind that the Ro value for SARS-2 is about 5.7, much higher than the flu at 1.28.

On to Antibody tests! There has been a lot of excitement recently about antibody tests, and I have promoted them in my posts as well. As many of you know, the PCR based tests look for viral RNA in nasal swabs and detect an active infection. They are very sensitive, but they are more expensive, and need to be performed at specialized sites. Because the virus mostly lives in the lungs, nasal swabs don’t always collect virus from an infected person, and the false negativity rate has been estimated to be around 29%, at least initially. This is very high.

Antibody (Ab) tests detect an immune response by the patient by isolating antibody from the blood. Most detect 2 kinds of antibodies. IgM antibodies are produced during infection, and start appearing after about 3 days. IgG antibodies are produced later, at about 7 days, but continue to be produced for weeks to months after infection. The antibody tests are often less sensitive than the PCR tests, and they do not work during the first few days, since antibodies are not produced that early.

As you might guess, combining PCR and Antibody tests may give a good indicator if and even when an asymptomatic person was infected. Below is a table of possible interpretations of test results, assuming testing is accurate. Always confirm results and discuss with your doctor when making health care decisions! The FDA regulates testing in the US, and several tests have received Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) status. This is not FDA approval, but allows tests to be performed under emergency conditions. Several labs have started to perform antibody testing along with PCR. At first, Ab tests will be given in combination with PCR tests to see if health care workers have already been infected. If you want an antibody test, you’ll need to check with your doctor to see if you meet availability criteria. Many other companies have tried to offer tests without EUA status, including at home tests. Many of these tests have very high false negativity rates, and are basically no good! As of this writing, I would not use any at home test kit. Before taking any test, check with your doctor, or confirm with the FDA or CDC websites to see if a test has EUA status.

Re-opening: The federal government has released guidelines on the re-opening process. These are recommended guidelines, and most states are likely to adopt them, but the final decision will be up to the Governor of each state. I’ll provide the link below. In short, to enter the first phase of re-opening, states or counties must show a downward trajectory of cases and symptoms for 14 days, and must have certain hospital capacities and infectious disease surveillance procedures in place. Each additional phase can be entered if these conditions continue to be met for an additional 14 days. Some states or counties may already meet the criteria for phase 1, and some states plan to enter phase 1 on May 1st. Looking at the criteria, the guidelines seem reasonable to me, and I hope Governors will learn from the experiences of other countries and states while making these decisions.

Until next time, don’t fear, but be smart!

FDA Emergency Use Authorizations:

Federal Reopening Guidelines:

When should we re-open? Opposite valid interests

Originally posted April 13th, 2020 on Facebook

This will be a longer post, so buckle up!

While I certainly have political opinions, I’ve been trying to minimize them for the purposes of these posts, in order that more of you will be willing to read! Today, some of you may be able to figure out where I stand on some things, although I’ll still try to keep the controversy to a minimum. This last weekend, there were protests in many cities of the US asking for the economy to be opened up. Of course, most of these requests took the form of slogans shouted or written on signs, rather than specific policy proposals. I’m very sympathetic to the need of many to get back to work so they can provide for their families, pay the rent, etc. I also share the frustration that much of the information provided by the media and government agencies is untrustworthy or incomplete. This is why I write these posts!

I want to reiterate the differences between the typical flu and the SARS-2 virus:

The R0 value (a measure of infectiousness, see my April 13th post) for the flu is 1.28. For SARS-2, it’s 5.7, 4.5 times higher!

The incubation time for the flu is 2-4 days, for SARS-2, it’s 2-14 days, and asymptomatic people are often contagious!

Yes, the fatality rate for both is impossible to know. And it’s probably over-estimated for both, since we don’t know the number of infected people with mild to moderate symptoms for either disease. But estimates are that the fatality rate for the typical flu is 0.14%. The current rate for COVID-19 in the US is 5.36% (deaths/confirmed cases), 38 times higher.

In short, SARS-2 is not the typical flu.

We have to concede that in an event like this one, there are many valid interests that are in some ways are opposed to each other. People at risk want to stay safe. Doctors and nurses want to treat their patients, but also face constant exposure of themselves and their families to the virus. Those in government do not want to expose their constituents to unnecessary risk. On the other hand, many have lost their jobs and need to get back to work. Mental health workers worry that their patients cannot withstand prolonged isolation and stress. Employers wonder if they have to lay off more people or close their businesses. All of these are real concerns, and they can’t be dismissed.

It will be difficult moving forward to strike a balance between these competing interests, and no solution will be perfect. We need to understand that most are doing their very best to manage a very difficult situation. There is lots of blame to go around, but remember that the nature of the virus has never been completely clear. For myself, I gave a talk at my church on March 13th (Posted here on March 18th). During the previous week, I was trying to determine if the virus was spread by droplet transmission (coughing and sneezing), or by aerosol transmission (shouting, laughing, singing, even talking). At the time, most outlets including the CDC said it was only spread by droplet transmission, but a few scientists were warning that it may be aerosol. Should I really be giving a talk on virus safety to room full of people? It appeared at the time that it would be OK, so I moved forward. Luckily for me, the decision was made to cancel gatherings, and my talk was recorded for the web. As it turned out, the SARS-2 virus is much more infectious that originally thought (see my post from April 13th), so add me to the list of people who were wrong! Thank God I didn’t have a crowd in the room during my talk!

Again, I am not an epidemiologist, I am a molecular biologist specializing in infectious disease. But in my informed opinion, reopening the economy without great care is a mistake. A similar experiment has already been done. On March 11th, California Governor Gavin Newsom banned large gatherings including sporting events, church services, and university classes. On the same day, New York Mayor Bill De Blasio was encouraging people to eat out and enjoy themselves. As of this writing (April 19th), California has 31,000 confirmed cases, and New York City alone has 138,000, more than all but 6 countries (yes, I’m including China, the Chinese Communist Party is almost certainly heavily under-reporting their case load)1. For a time, New York hospitals were overwhelmed, and bodies were being temporarily buried on Hart Island. This is the possible consequence of going back to normal too quickly! If you choose to gather in large groups during this time (for example at protests in downtown San Diego), I would strongly encourage you to take extra care to isolate yourself from those at risk or those who may come in contact with them.

I am less sympathetic to those who want to get back to normal just so they can go to Disneyland or to their favorite restaurant. As we reopen the economy, we have to do so carefully. Theaters, restaurants, and amusement parks are among the last things that should be reopened.

We will need have adequate testing and hospital capacity to handle the additional case load. Each area will be different in this regard, and New York City should not be treated the same as Ennis, Montana. We will also need to have grace for one another, as well-intentioned mistakes will be made along the way. Ideally, we should also have contact tracing, contacting those potentially exposed to an infected person. This practice, along with aggressive testing, was used very effectively in Taiwan, So. Korea, and Singapore, to minimize caseload. Unfortunately, we are not yet able to do contact tracing in the US.

While I am very sympathetic to individual rights, and am in general for small government, we may need to voluntarily lay down certain rights for a time in order to protect each other. Pray for our leaders, regardless of party, and take care of each other!

I’ll have another post soon on the topic of antibody testing.

Don’t fear, but be smart!

Workers temporarily bury bodies on Hart Island in New York City

1 Editor’s note: As of the date of posting, the statistics here were correct. As of July 7, 2020, however, the situation has reversed. New York State as 398k confirmed cases, California has 284k confirmed cases. New York state daily cases are trending downward, while California daily cases have been trending upward.

An Intro to Coronavirus

Originally posted March 9, 2020 on Facebook

I don’t post much, so you probably don’t know what I’m up to these days. I have a PhD in Molecular Biology, and for years I worked at Quest Diagnostics, a medical testing company, specializing in infectious disease. There is still a lot of confusion about the new Coronavirus (officially SARS-CoV-2), and I wanted to clear things up a little bit.

I hear a lot of people say “this is just like the normal flu, and lots of people die from that, and this is just like that.” They also point to the Avian Flu or the first SARS virus and say “those were no big deal, so this is no big deal.”

The current virus is much more lethal that the standard flu. The typical yearly flu has a death rate of 0.14%. The SARS-2 virus has a death rate of about 3.4%, 24 times higher than the normal flu. Also, SARS-2 is approximately 2.5 times more contagious than the normal flu. In short, SARS-2 is not a normal flu and should be taken seriously! If you remember the Spanish Flu from high school history class, SARS-2 has the potential to be as bad as that. But it doesn’t have to be!

Panic is always a bad idea, but do some simple things to protect you and your family:

Wash your hands frequently

Don’t touch your face if you haven’t just washed your hands, and wash your hands again after.

Don’t go out in public if you have a cough or a sneeze

I recommend against shaking hands for awhile! Elbow bumps for me!

If anyone in your family has a cough, sneeze or a fever, everyone in your family should stay at home until you can be tested and be certain you don’t have SARS-2.

My wife and I rarely give each other our colds, so the above works for us! We don’t want to panic, but we do want to protect each other! Stock up on some items, but don’t clear out the store! Other people need those items too!

Stay safe and be good to each other!

Erik P. Johnson